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Plant Kingdom


Eukaryotic, multicellular, chlorophyll containing and having cell wall, are grouped under the kingdom Plantae. It is popularly known as plant kingdom.

Different systems of classification

  • Artificial classification oldest classification and it is based on few vegetative and sexual
  • Natural classification system it is based on natural affinities among the organisms in their external and internal features.
  • Phylogenetic classification system it is based on evolutionary relationship
  • Numerical taxonomy by using computers numbers and codes are assigned to all the characters and data are processed.
  • Cytotaxonomy it is based on cytological information like chromosome number, structure and behavior.
  • Chemotaxonomy it is based chemical constituents of the plants.

plant kingdom notes 1


  • Simple, thalloid, autotrophic, aquatic organisms. o Habitats grow inmoist soil and wood.
  • Symbiotic( Lichens) grow on other animals (sloth bear)
  • Size ranges from Unicellular colonial (volvox),Filamentous ( spirogyra) and Massive bodies (kelp)
  • Reproduce vegetatively, asexually and sexually
  • Spores are Zoospores (male)  isogamous / anisogamous; Oospores (egg).

Economic importance:

  1. Porphyra, Laminaria, Sargassum are used as food.
  2. Marine brown algae (Algin) and red algae (Carrageen) are used as Hydrocolloids, which is a fibrous structure holds water and used to transport seedling.
  3. Gelidium, Graularia are usedtogrow microbes, makeice creams and jellies.
  4. Chlorella and Spirullina are rich in proteins and used as food supplements.

Algae are divided into 3 main classes;

plant kingdom notes 2

a) Chlorophycease (Green algae):

  • Colonial / filamentous / unicellular
  • Vegetative reproduction is by fragmentation / spores
  • Asexual reproduction is byflagellated Zoospores
  • Sexual reproduction is by isogamous / anisogamous / oogamous Examples : - Volvox, Spirogyra, Chlamydomonas

b) Phaeophycease (Brown algae)

  • They are attached to substratum by Holdfast (root like), Stalk (stipe) and leaf (frond)
  • Vegetative reproduction by fragmentation
  • Asexual reproduction is by biflagellated zoospores
  • Sexual reproduction is by Isogamous / Anisogamous / Oogamous.
  • Examples: - Laminaria, Srgassum, Ectocarpus, Dictyota, Fucus.

c) Rhodophycease ( Red algae)

  • Vegetative reproduction is by fragmentation.
  • Asexually by non-motile spores.
  • Sexually by non-motile gametes.
  • Examples : - Porphyra, Gracilaria, Gelidium.


  • They live in moist shaded areas in the hill.
  • It is known as "amphibians of plant kingdom".
  • They occur in damp soil, humid and shaded places.
  • Plant body lacks true roots, stem, leaves, they are attached to the substratum by unicellular / multicellular Rhizoids.
  • The main plant is haploid and they produce gametes (Gametophyte dominant).
  • The male sex organ is Antheridium (antherozoids)
  • The female sex organ is Archegonium (single egg)
  • Antherozoids are released in water come into contact with Archegonium to form Zygote.
  • Zygote develops into Sporophyte (diploid) undergoes meiosis to form haploid spores germinate to produce Gametophyte.

plant kingdom notes 3

Economic importance

  • Provide food for herbaceous mammals / birds.
  • Sphagnum species (mosses) provide peat, used as a fuel.
  • Due to its water holding capacity is is used as packing material for trans-shipment of living materials.
  • Mosses and Lichens form Pioneer community on bare rocks.
  • Form dense mats on soil, so reduce the impact of rain and soil erosion.

Classes: - There are two classes - Liverworts, Mosses.

a) Liverworts:

  • Moist, shady habitats, damp soil, bark of trees and deep in the woods. o Plant body is Thalloid, have a tiny leaf structures.
  • Asexual reproduction is by fragmentation / form gemmae (green, multicellular, asexual bodies) they detach from parent body and form as a new individual.
  • Sexual reproduction form male & female sex organs sporophyte is differentiated into a foot, setae and capsule.
  • Spore germinates to form gametophyte.

Example :- Marchantia

b) Mosses:

  • Gametophyte shows two stages Protonema (spores) and Leafy stage (Secondary protonema)
  • Attached to the soil by Rhizoids
  • Vegetative reproduction is by fragmentation / budding o Sexual reproduction is by antheridia and archegonia
  • Zygote develops into sporophyte and form capsule and it contains spores (haploid)

Example: - Sphagnum, Funaria

III.PTERIDOPHYTES  (first land plants):

  • They are used for medical purpose, ornamental and as soil binders and first terrestrial plants.
  • They grow in cool, damp, shady places
  • Possess vascular tissues (xylem and phloem)
  • Main plant body is Sporophytes
  • The body is differentiated into true roots, stem and leaves.
  • Leaves may be small (microphylls selaginella) or large (macrophylls ferns) and bear sporangia and form sporophylls (leaf carrying spores).
  • Sporangia produce spores by meiosis.
  • Spore germinatesto form gametophyte,called Prothallus.
  • They need water for fertilization
  • Gametophyte bear male & female sex organs called Antheridia and Archaegonia respectively.
  • Gamete fusion results in zygote formation. Zygote develops into sporophytes (dominant phase).
  • If all the spores are similar kind, it is called Homospores.
  • Selaginella producetwo kinds of spores, Macro and micro spores, hence known as o Heterosporous.
  • Macro and micro spores develop into female and male gametophytes respectively.
  • Female gametophyte retained on sporophyte. It leads to the development of seed habit.

Classes: - There are four classesin Pteridophtae;

  1. Psilopsida Ex. Psilotum
  2. Lycopsida Ex. Selaginella
  3. Sphenopsida Ex. Equisetum
  4. Pteropsida Ex. Pteris

plant kingdom notes 4

IV. GYMNOSPERMS (Naked seeds)

  • They are seed bearing plants.
  • The ovules are not enclosed in an ovary, so no fruits.
  • Tallest gymnosperm is Sequoia (red wood tree)
  • Plant body is differentiated into roots, stems and leaves
  • Roots are tap root associated with other organisms like Pinus roots with Mycorrhizae and Cycas roots with Cyanobacteria like Nostoc and Anabaena (nitrogen fixing microbes)
  • Stem canbebranched / unbranched
  • Leaves are simple / needle like leaves show Xerophytic adaptation
  • Gymnosperms are heterosporous, produce microspores and megaspores
  • They form male cones & female cones
  • Both cones can occur on some plant / different.
  • Fertilization results in Zygoteand embryo develops.
  • Ovules form seeds.
  • Gymnosperms show diplontic life cycle.
  • They show Alternation of generation.
  • Examples ; - Pinus, Cycas, Cedrus

plant kingdom notes 5

V.  ANGIOSPERMS (flowering plants)

  • They are flowering plants
  • Seeds are covered by fruits live in wide range of habitats.
  • Size variesfrom tiny microscopic Wolfia to tall trees Eucalyptus.
  • Provide food, fodder, fuel and medicine.
  • There are two classes - Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons.

    plant kingdom notes 6

  • Male sex organ is Stamen and female is Pistil.
  • Ovules have embryo sac; it undergoes meiosis and form egg apparatus with one egg and 2 synergids, 3 antipodal cells and 2 polar nuclei.
  • Double fertilisation- Each pollen grain produce two male gametes. One gametes fuse with egg to form embryo. This is called Syngamy. Other gametes fuse with two polar nuclei to form endosperm, triple fusion. Since fertilisation takes place twice, it is called double fertilisation.
  • Polar nuclei fuses to form secondary polar nucleus.
  • Pollen dispersal is by pollination pollen tube grows in to stigma and style of pistil, one male gamete fuses with egg and form zygote and other male gamete fuses with secondary polar nucleus (2n) to form Primary Endosperm Nucleus (PEN - 3n).
  • Due to two fusions, it is called Double fertilization.

Zygote - Embryo

PEN - Endosperm (and nourishes embryo)

Synergids and antipodal cells - degenerate

Ovules seeds

Ovary - Fruits

plant kingdom notes 7

Alternation of generation

Different plant groups complete their life cycles in different patterns. Angiosperms complete their life cycle in two phases- a diploid sporophytes and haploid gametophyte. The two follows each other. This phenomenon is called alternation of generation.

  • Haplontic- Saprophytic generation is represented by only the one-celled zygote. Meiosis in zygote results into haploid spores to form gametophytes, which is the dominant vegetative phase. Example- Volvox, Spirogyra etc.
  • Diplontic- Diploid sporophytes is dominant, independent, photosynthetic plants. The gametophyte is represented by single to few celled. All seed bearing plants fall under this category.
  • Haplo-diplontic- Both phases are multicellular and intermediate condition is It is present in Bryophytes and Pteridophytes.

plant kingdom notes 8

Life cycle patterns : (a) Haplontic (b) Diplontic (c) Haplo-diplontic

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