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It is a set or instructions or programs grouped to Performa specific task for the end user. It is categorized into two types.

  1. System software:

    It is Also called as operating system software, which works as an interface between the  application and the hardware components.

    It sets a platform to work with any application software.

    Ex: windows, Linux, UNIX, Solaris

  2. Application software:

    Which is developed to work as an interface between the end user and the database.

    Ex: ms office, google, gmail, hotmail, calculator....


It is the process of identifying the defects in the software system constructed.


It is a verification and validation process to ensure the completeness and correctness of the system.


It is the process of identifying the unidentified defects the system.

Manual testing:

Human interacting with the developed system to check it's completeness and correctness is called  as manual testing.


Is considered as deviation from the expectation (customer requirements)

Any defect identified should be reported to the development team for it's rectification.

Benefits of testing:

  1. Will improve the quality of the software that is constructed.
  2. Will improve the customer satisfaction
  3. Will reduce the cost and efforts .

Testing objective:

The objective of testing is to identify the defects in the software system constructed.


A software application which is relatively maximum bug free and which is developed in the specified  time and cost limits and meets the customer expectations, then that software is called as a quality software.

The factors affecting the quality are;

  1. Meeting the customer requirements or expectation
  2. Time
  3. Budget/cost

Software engineering:

It is the process of developing/constructing a software application by implementing/following  different stages is collectively called as software engineering.

Software Development Life Cycle( SDLC ):

It is the collection of various stages in implementing a software application.

It is otherwise called as a general model, which is a combination of 6 stages:

  1. Requirement collection:

    It is Also called as as requirements gathering, where a group of experts will visit the customer's  site and analyze the business performed and will collect the documents & requirements.

    People involved are like project and test analysts or leads

    There can be two types of requirements collected and documented.

    1. Business Requirements:

      It is the collection of all the business processes or business transactions performed.

      All the high level activities captured and document along with the business rules framed by the  customer is called as "business requirement specification"(BRS)

    2. Functional Requirements:

      These are otherwise called as system or software requirements.

      It is a detailed document which describes every individual transaction that is documented in BRS document.

      It is consists of all the functional and non functional components that are required in constructing  the current system.

      It can be a combination of flow charts and dataflow diagrams as well as use cases.

      All the above would help in understanding the requirements better.

      The functional requirements are inputs for any type of an activity performed in constructing the system.

  2. Feasibility analysis:

    Feasibility: it is the possibility of implementing/developing the software.

    It is Also called as business commit, where the customer and the vendor will commit a business or  come to an agreement in constructing the software.

    As part of business commit, the project managers and the business analyst would be involved in  getting the base requirements of the business performed by the customer and the project managers  would be involved in analyzing the following things:

    1. Domain:

      It is the common set of features or functionalities performed in a business grouped together is  called as a domain

      Ex: banking, finance, retail, telecom, logistics, health care, stock, networking, web, investments...

      The study is made on the business performed by the customer.

    2. Technology:

      A detailed technical study is made in analyzing the technology required to implement the software

      Ex: programming language and database skills

      C,c++,vc++,java, ejbs, struts, .net, asp, along with sql.....

    3. Resources:

      There are three kinds of resources:

      1. Hardware Resources:

        The system configurations along with network and server resources, which are required are analyzed.

      2. Software Requirements:

        The software required to implement the application

        Ex: operating system, database

        Windows, linux... Oracle, sql server....

      3. Human Resources:

        The man power required to implement the software is also analyzed with the sufficient  experience and the technical skills.

    4. Time and Budget:

      The total time and the amount of cost that would be incurred in implementing the software.

      All the above are analyzed and documented which are considered as project proposals or estimates  and would be sent to the customer for evaluation.

      If customer approves the proposal, then business commit is considered to be completed and the  implementation phase will be started.

  3. Design:

    Designing the architecture as well as the interfaces and database is called as design.

    This is carried by the design architects, which is done in 2 phases after the requirement collection.

    1. HLD ( High Level Design ) :

      It is Also called as architectural design, where the complete application or system architecture is designed.

    2. LLD ( Low Level Design ) :

      It is Also called as detailed design, where both the interface(user interface), as well as the  database components are designed.

      As part of the interface, the components or the unit in a screen or a page are designed.

      As part of back end, the tables required, data types, constraints and relations between the  tables are designed.

  4. Coding:

    It is Also called as implementation phase where the set of instructions or source code is  developed based on the requirements and the design documents.

    This is where the static application is converted to dynamic, it is responsibility of a programmer  to develop the logic(source code)

  5. Testing:

    After the application is constructed, it should be validated for it's completeness and correctness,  and the process of doing it is called as testing, where a test engineer, developers, clients, third party  people are involved.

  6. Release and maintenance:


    Is the process of delivering the software constructed and tested to the customer by the vendor  for further usage is called as release

    This is otherwise called as go-live or production.


    It is the support that is extended by the vendor's team, in helping the customer if customer  faces any challenges in accessing the software for a specific time frame as per the initial agreement is called as maintenance.

Cost of defect repair graph:

The cost of fixing the defects will be increased stage by stage, if they are identified early the cost is minimal.

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