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Static Testing

Static Testing

Static Testing is considered as verification of the documentation.

It is also called as verification testing, which can be part of all the stages in the development process and which starts at very initial stage.

There are two techniques followed in the static testing process, they are

  1. Reviews
  2. Walkthroughs:


Reviews are part of static testing performed by the quality assurance team.

Benefits of reviews

  1. Defects are identified at early stage of the development process
  2. The defects in the later stages can be prevented.
  3. Time and efforts in fixing the defects would be reduced
  4. Will improve the quality of the  product/software/application constructed.
  5. Will improve the customer satisfaction.

There can be five types of reviews performed in a project process:

  1. Peer review (informal review) : A review phase on the documentation prepared, conducted by the colleague with the same role played in the project.
  2. Technical review : These reviews will be conducted among technical members to decide the best approach of implementation when ever there is a technical difficulty. 
  3. Lead review : A review phase conducted by the leader of the team.
  4. Manager or Customer Review : A review phase conducted by the manager or the customer(if customer is involved). This is considered to be the final review phase, if the document is approved at this level then it is considered as approved or signed off.
  5. Inspections and audits ( formal review ) : It is also part of review, which is verification of documentation. It is considered as a formal phase where the activity is identified along with the time in which it has to be conducted.

Inspection might have the team with following roles

  1. Inspection leader or moderator : Who is responsible for initiating the inspection process, who is also responsible for identifying the team activity on which the inspection has to be conducted along with time and the venue for the inspection. ex: managers or analysts
  2. Inspector or reviewer : The person who is responsible for monitoring the inspection process and to monitor the progress of the inspection process, will be the leader during the inspection process.
  3. Reader : Is the person, who is actually involved in reading the documentation, on which the inspection process is conducted and is also responsible for identifying the deviations or enhancements to be done, generally called as "anomalies"
  4. Recorder or scribe : Is the person responsible for documenting the anomalies or deviations or enhancements identified by the reader.
  5. Author : Is the actual owner of the document, who is responsible for updating the document, if any changes or comments or updates documented by the recorder.

Phases of formal review ( inspection )

  1. Planning
  2. Kick off meeting
  3. Preparations
  4. Review meeting
  5. Re work
  6. Follow up


It is the first phase of formal review where the author will send a formal request to moderator. Now the moderator will perform a entry check to confirm whether the document is eligible for review or not , if eligible moderator prepares a review plan and defines exit criteria.

  1. Entry criteria / Entry check / Entry condition : A set of pre conditions to start an activity is called entry criteria.
  1. Exit criteria / Exit check / Exit condition : A set of pre conditions to stop an activity is called exit criteria

Kick of meeting

This meeting is helpful for moderator to explain the review task and also to take the time commitment form reviewers.


In this phase all reviewers will start reviewing the job individually. During this review questions and defects will be documented by every reviewer individually.

Review meeting

All participants of review process that is reviewers , Moderators including the author will assemble & discuss about the questions and defects they identified .the accepted defects will be documented separately by a person called scribe / recorder .

Re work

In this phase author will rework on the document to fix defects.

Fallow up

It is a last phase in formal review where the moderator will fallow up all reviews to ensure the fulfillment of exit criteria.      


It is also a technique in static testing, but in audit, the process in implementing  the software is checked rather than the functionality inside the application constructed. As part of audit the audit team will be held responsible to check the following things.

Checklist for Audit:

  1. Are the templates used in all the activities are valid as per the organizational standards
  2. Have the naming conventions followed.
  3. Are the activities carried as per the plan
  4. Is documentation done for every single activity performed.
  5. Are the deliverables prepared and delivered in time as per the plan

People involved are auditors, any deviations in the audit process will be documented 
and will be considered as "non conformance"(nc), the collection of all the ncs in a project is called as " non conformance report" (ncr)

Audits can be of two types

Internal : An audit phase conducted by the team with in the organization

External : An audit conducted by the audit team from standard bodies like(iso, cmm, sei...)

Walkthroughs :

It is also a technique in static testing. A step by step presentation conducted by author about a subject to provide common understanding to a team is called walkthrough. ( knowledge transfer sessions are called walkthrough )

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